Extreme Heat Safety


Preparing for Extreme Heat
Pay attention every day to the weather conditions by tuning in to the radio or TV.
Always keep necessities like a flashlight, emergency food and beverages, a fan for fanning yourself, portable radio, etc. in case of a power outage.
Have contact information at hand for the nearest hospital, and monitor yourself and your family members for symptoms of problems like heatstroke.
Prepare for possible interruption of water supply by stocking up on bottled water and filling up the bathtub with water for household use.
If using a cooling device, maintain an indoor/outdoor temperature difference of about 5℃ to prevent illness from overexposure to air conditioning. (The advisable range of healthful indoor cooling temperatures is 26℃-28℃.)
Inspect the transformer to prepare against overloading. (Pay special attention in older apartment buildings!)
Use curtains or shades to prevent direct sunlight from entering the house as much as possible.
If you are planning on a long driving trip, think twice and be extra cautious of traffic accidents, since the heat may cause deformations in the road surface.
How to Overcome Tropical Nights
Abstain from ingesting caffeine (e.g., coffee, tea, cola, chocolate) or alcohol, and avoid smoking.
Create a comfortable environment through proper cooling.
If the cooling system causes an excessive decrease in humidity, the possibility of developing respiratory diseases increases, so it is important to maintain humidity.
Criteria for Issuance of Extreme Heat Advisories & Warnings
Extreme Heat Advisory: When it is expected that the daily high temperature will be at least 33℃, with a daily high heat index measuring at least 32℃ for at least two days in the months of June through September.
Extreme Heat Warning: When it is expected that the daily high temperature will be at least 35℃, with a daily high heat index measuring at least 41℃ for at least two days in the months of June through September.
Light exercise in the early evening is helpful for a sound sleep.
It is advisable to take a warm shower before going to bed.
Drinking a cup of milk before bed keeps you from feeling hungry and induces sleep.
It is important to maintain a regular sleep schedule.
During an extreme heat advisory
At home
  • Abstain from outdoor activities. (If you absolutely must go out, wear a wide-brimmed hat and light clothing. Carry a water bottle.)
  • Drink plenty of water, and avoid sweetened or caffeinated beverages and alcohol.
  • Inside buildings without air conditioning, block sunlight from coming in, ventilate to let out stale air, and turn on an electric fan.
  • Do not leave an elderly person or child alone in a car with all the windows rolled up.
  • Elderly persons with limited mobility, seniors who live alone, invalids, and the infirm should refrain from going outside. Relatives and neighbors should be asked to keep an eye on them.
  • If you are taking salts for conditions like dehydration, check with your physician.
  • When initial symptoms of heatstroke appear, e.g., dizziness, nausea, headache, and muscle spasms, move to a cool place, rest for several minutes, and drink a cold beverage slowly.
  • When the temperature reaches its highest level, from 12 to 4 p.m., stay in an air-conditioned building for at least 2 hours.
At the workplace
  • Refrain from holding external events, for example, outdoor team-building activities and sports matches.
  • Take a nap for 10~15 minutes at lunchtime to maintain personal health.
  • Improve the working environment for the staff and allow casual dressing.
At school
  • Allow for shortened school hours in elementary, middle, and high schools.
  • Abstain from outdoor activities, such as excursions and sports events.
  • Be careful of food poisoning when providing school lunch.
At industrial and construction sites
  • Take frequent short breaks rather than one long break.
  • When working outside for a long time, wear a vest with an ice pack.
  • Open all windows and doors for natural ventilation.
  • Check the cooling systems of construction machinery regularly to prevent overheating.
  • Maintain sanitation and perform disinfection in the construction office, living quarters, cafeteria, etc., to prevent health problems like food poisoning, typhoid fever, encephalitis, etc.
  • Drink a cup of cold water (with salt) at 15-20-minute intervals at work. Avoid alcohol and caffeinated beverages.
  • Avoid any heat sources, for example, hot liquid, hot machine, flame, etc., and install a heatproof booth.
  • Avoid wearing tight clothes that inhibit perspiration.
At fish farms
  • Install shades in aboveground cultivation facilities and mix bottom water and surface water.
  • Open the windows of cultivation facilities for good ventilation.
  • Inject low-temperature underground seawater.
  • Inject liquid oxygen to prevent oxygen deficit that accompanies increased water temperature.
  • Prevent fish diseases from spreading due to the physiological weakening among the fish.
  • Check power generators in advance to guard against electricity failure.
In farmhouses and barns
  • Tighten control over the increased occurrence of insect pests.
  • Open windows, provide continuous ventilation with fans, etc., and maintain proper stocking density.
  • Install a water sprayer on the ceiling of a pigsty or a henhouse to prevent radiant heat.
  • Attach an insulating material such as Styrofoam to the ceiling of the barn or stable.
  • Install a mosquito control system and disinfect the stall.
  • Install lightproof facilities, drip irrigation, and water film facilities to prevent damage to a house.
  • Perform irrigation with a sprinkler for vegetables grown outdoors.
On roads and railways
  • When temperatures of 35℃ or higher are forecast, spray the roads with water to prevent the road surface from deforming.
  • Reinforce traveling railroad inspections and spray water on the rails.
During an extreme heat warning
At home
  • Do not engage in any outdoor activities from 12-4 p.m.
  • Do not get in the water without preparation or take a sudden cold shower (due to risk of heart attack).
  • Turn the fan toward a window to induce ventilation. (Refrain from using the fan for prolonged periods.)
  • Strenuous exercise or movement at a late hour interferes with sound sleep; abstain from watching dramas, playing computer games, etc. which may cause mental tension.
  • Wear loose and light clothing to block UV rays and apply a UV blocker such as sun screen to exposed skin.
  • When going out with a child, do not wrap him/her with a thick blanket or clothes.
  • Elderly persons with limited mobility, seniors who live alone, invalids, and the infirm should be prevented from going outside. Relatives and neighbors should check on them regularly.
At the workplace
  • Cancel all outdoor activities.
  • Allow for nap time for employees.
  • Allow for a flexible work schedule system, avoiding the highest-temperature time period.
  • Impose compulsory leave on any employee whose physical condition is abnormal.
At school
  • Consider closing elementary and middle schools temporarily.
  • Prohibit outdoor activities such as playing in the playground, excursions, etc
  • Again, be careful of food poisoning in providing school lunch.
At industrial and construction sites
  • Seriously consider work stoppage, at the field supervisor’s discretion.
  • Avoid prolonged work operations, reduce working hours, and consider implementing night shifts.
  • When the temperature reaches its highest level, from 12 to 4 p.m., stop all indoor and outdoor work if possible and take a rest.
  • Since sleep deprivation and accumulated fatigue present a risk of electric shock, avoid handling electricity.
  • Abstain from unnecessarily rapid movements especially when working outdoors.
  • Always wear a safety helmet and a safety belt at work.
At fish farms
  • Observe the feeding and other behavior of fish, and immediately remove fish that exhibit any abnormality (to prevent disease from spreading).
  • Put ice in the water tank to inhibit water temperature from increasing.
  • Reduce stocking density as much as possible, as well as rapid transfer.
  • Since raw feed oxidizes rapidly, check feed for rotting due to humidity or exposure to direct sunlight.
In farmhouses and barns
  • Provide clean water and give vitamins and mineral-mixed feed.
  • Do not supply moldy or old feed.
  • Upon livestock’s death, rapidly bury and disinfect them to prevent infectious disease from spreading.
  • Remove manure from barns and stables and keep them dry.
  • Due to risk of fires from short circuits and overheating, check the amount of electrical consumption from cooling and ventilation.
On roads and railways
  • To keep the road surface from deforming and to prevent traffic accidents, control transport of heavy vehicles and spray water on the road. When temperatures of 35℃ or higher are forecast, spray the roads with water to prevent the road surface from deforming.
  • Go slowly, stop the train, or spray water as the rail temperature increases.